Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president.
Nobel laureate Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron, based on which UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, have discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world.
UC Berkeley's athletic teams date to this time and so are referred to as the California Golden Bears, Cal Bears, or just Cal. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley.
Today, the term "University of California" refers to the statewide school system of which UC Berkeley is a part. During World War II, the military increased its presence on campus to recruit more officers, and by 1944, more than 1,000 Berkeley students were enrolled in the V-12 Navy College Training Program and naval training school for diesel engineering.
A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed; In 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus.
Each campus was given relative autonomy and its own Chancellor.